About Us

Research

Research is an integral part of the U.S. Army/ Air Force-Baylor University Doctorate of Science (DSc) of Physician Assistant Studies – Emergency Medicine residency. The 2004-2005 SAMMC EMPA Residency class conducted the first doctoral research projects, and defended their work at a board of Baylor University Graduate Faculty and the Dean of the Graduate School. Since then, the EMPA Residents have published numerous articles and original research in peer-reviewed journals, presented their work at national conferences, and after graduation have been invited to be book reviewers and journal editors.

Research Projects by EMPA Residents

Class 2015-2016

  • Has The Advancement of Air Bag Technology and Mandatory Implementation in all Vehicles Decreased Intra-Abdominal Injuries in Patients with Classic "Seat Belt Signs?"
  • Has the Implementation of Air Bag Technology and Mandatory Implementation in all Vehicles Decreased Intra-Abdominal Injuries in Patients with Classic "Seat Belt Signs?"
  • Battle Field Acupuncture as Primary or Adjunctive Treatment in Back Pain (Acute Musculoskeletal pain) in the (acute pain setting) Emergency Department
  • Prothrombin Complex Concentrate (KCENTRA) Versus Alternative Products in a Level 1 Trauma Center
  • Prothrombin Complex Concentrate (KCENTRA) Versus Alternative Treatment Modalities at a Level 1 Trauma Center
  • THINK trial: Treatment of Headache with IntraNasal Ketamine: A randomized, single blinded, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of intranasal ketamine versus standard therapy in the management of primary headache syndromes in the ED.

Class 2014-2015

  • The Use of a Topical Anesthetic Skin Refrigerant to Reduce the Pain Associated with Intravenous Catheter Insertion: A Double Blinded, Patient/ Placebo Controlled Study
  • Comparison of the Internal Jugular Central Line Ultrasound Trainers Simlab versus Blue Phantom
  • A Comparison of Bag-Valve-Mask (BVM) Ventilation Using a Standard vs a Modified BVM in a Manikin Model

Class 2013-2014

  • Comparison of the Direct Laryngoscope versus GlideScope Video Laryngoscope during Intubation of a Difficult Manikan Airway.
  • Isopropyl Alcohol Nasal Inhalation for Nausea in the Emergency Department: A Randomized Controlled Trial
  • A comparison of ventilation rates between a standard BVM and a novel rate-controlled BVM in a pre-hospital setting during training simulations with Army medics
  • Does the Mojo Chest Decompression Kit increase first time success in the treatment of Tension Pneumothorax?

Class 2012-2013

  • Overutilization of William Beaumont Emergency Room for Non-Emergent Causes
  • Comparison of the SALT airway system and the King LT for airway management by military medics. Is the SALT airway a superior alternative?
  • Cumulative Effective Radiation Dose Received by Blunt Trauma Patients Arriving to a Military Level I Trauma Center from Point of Injury and Inter-Hospital Transfers
  • Comparison of a Standard Gum Elastic Bougie vs Malleable Bougie vs Rigid Stylet in the Glide Scope Intubation of a Difficult Manikin Airway

Class 2011-2012

  • Chest Seal Adhesiveness on Human Test Subjects
  • Intraosseous Access Ease of Use Comparison: Pyng Fast 1 and EZ-IO Power Driver
  • Ultrasound guided femoral artery cannulation
  • Disease and Non-Battle Injury Treatment at an Enhanced Battalion Aid Station: Retrospective Observational Study
  • Diagnostic accuracy of bedside Ultrasound compared to plain-film X-rays for assessment of long bone-fractures within the Emergency Department
  • Transcricothyroid Ultrasonography for the Confirmation of Endotracheal Tube Placement by United States Military Emergency Providers
  • An Observational Study Comparing Cricothyroidotomy Sets Meeting the Essentials Characteristics Proposed by the Committee on Tactical Combat Casualty Care During Airway Management of the Combat Casualty by Inexperienced Medical Providers
  • Optimizing Triage: A Retrospective Comparison of Triage Models for Military Application
  • Purified Protein Derivative (PPD) Conversion Rates in Military Personnel Working in Military Detention Facilities Throughout Iraq
  • Trauma Resuscitation Evaluation Times and Correlating Human Patient Simulation Training Differences – What is the Standard

Class of 2010-2011

  • Analysis of Calls to the Central Texas Poison Control Center from Fort Hood Emergency Department in 2001 and 2009
  • Physician Assistants Increased Self-Confidence Interpreting Diagnostic Emergency Ultrasound Study (EUS) for Trauma Images While Evaluating Abdominal Trauma Prior to Field Evacuation
  • A Novel Method to Disinfect Non-Critical Surgical Instruments for Operational and Austere Environments
  • Do Providers in Combat Need More Advanced Airway Training? A Retrospective Case-Control Pilot Study Determining Endotracheal Intubation Success Rates at Role I and IIA Facilities in Support of the Global War on Terrorism
  • Examining the TCCC Card: Assessing Time of Completion and Accuracy in a Simulated Combat Setting
  • Has Brigade Combat Team Trauma Training Increased Pain Medication Administration Rates on the Battlefield

Class of 2009-2010

  • Current Practice of Thermoregulation During the Transport of Combat Wounded
  • The Availability of Pre-Hospital Documentation in the Joint Theater Trauma Registry
  • Patterns of Thrombolytic Use for ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) in Emergency Medicine Residencies in the United States
  • Impact of Operational Conditions on Medication Concentration: A Pilot Study
  • Comparison of Intravenous and Intraosseous Vascular Insertion Method in Ambient Light and in Low Visibility Using Chemlite and Night Vision Goggles
  • Ultrasound Guided Peripheral Intravenous Access Performed by Army Combat Medics

Class of 2008-2009

  • Method and Effectiveness of Thermoregulation During Transport of Combat Wounded
  • An Observational Study Comparing Three Optical Laryngoscopes, One Optical Stylet Versus Direct Laryngoscopy in Combat Trauma Airway Training for Deploying Medical Providers Whom are Inexperienced at Intubation
  • Impact of Operational Conditions on Medication Concentration
  • Patterns of Thrombolytic Use for ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Emergency Medicine Residency Training
  • Trends in Research Methodologies and Statistics in Original Disaster Medicine Articles Over a 3 Year Period
  • Timing of Aspirin in Acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Class of 2007-2008

  • A Comparison of Ketorolac Tromethamine and Morphine in the Management of Acute Lower Back Pain in the Emergency Department
  • The Efficacy and Cost-effectiveness of Chest X-ray (CXR) Requests by TRIAGE Nurses in the Brooke Army Medical Center Emergency Department
  • Preventing Hypothermia: A Prospective Controlled Trial Comparing Current Devices Used by the US Army, Utilizing a Warmed Saline Model
  • Do Vending Machines Serve as a Reservoir for Nosocomial Pathogens?
  • Ultrasound Detection of Pneumothorax in Swine with Minimally Trained Sonographers: A Preliminary Study
  • Assessment of Risk Factors Predictive Of The Need For Pulmonary Venous Thromboembolism Assessment In A Chest-Pain Unit Population

Class of 2006-2007

  • Mushrooms in North America
  • Intravenous Zofran as a Single Agent Abortive Therapy for Migraine Headache in the Emergency Department Patient; a Double-Blinded, Drug Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Emergent Inter-facility Evacuation of Casualties in Combat: A Case Series of 98 Patients
  • Nebulized Naloxone: Is It Used Clinically To Reverse Opioid Toxicity?

Publications, Presentations, and Awards by SAMMC EMPA Fellows

  • Isopropyl Alcohol Nasal Inhalation for Nausea in the Emergency Department: A Randomized Controlled Trial (Published in Annals of Emergency Medicine, CORD, West Journal of Emergency Medicine. Poster presentation at World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine)
  • A Comparison of Bag-Valve-Mask (BVM) Ventilation Using a Standard vs a Modified BVM in a Manikin Model
  • The Use of a Topical Anesthetic Skin Refrigerant to Reduce the Pain Associated with Intravenous Catheter Insertion: A Double Blinded, Patient/ Placebo Controlled Study
  • The Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: A Nebulous Ticking Time Bomb. Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants (JAAPA). March 2016. doi 10.1097/01. Vol 29(3), pg 32-36.
  • Chest Discomfort in a Cancer Patient. Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants (JAAPA). June 2015. doi 10.1097/01. Vol 28(6), pg 43-46.
  • Transcricothyroid Ultrasonography for the Confirmation of Endotracheal Tube Placement by United States Military Emergency Providers (Poster presentation at American Institute of Ultrasound Medicine. 3rd Place in 2013 Government Symposium Research Forum)
  • Acute GI Bleed and the Rapid Infuser: A case report and review (Towner Schafer Report)
  • Cock-A-Doodle-Doo: A curious case of presumed cellulitis (Towner Schafer Report)
  • Fit-Hugh Curtis- PID’s harsh distant relative (Towner Schafer Report)
  • Rhabdomyolysis: A review (Society of Air Force Physician Assistants National Conference)
  • The effects of standardized trauma training on pre-hospital pain control: Have pain medication administration rates increased on the battlefield (pending publication in the Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery)
  • An Observational Study Assessing Completion Time and Accuracy of the Tactical Combat Casualty Card (TCCC) When Filled Out by Inexperienced Combat Medics in a Simulated Combat Setting (pending publication in the Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery)
  • Preventing Hypothermia: comparison of current devices used by the US Army in an in vitro warmed fluid model. J Trauma. 2010 Jul ;69 Suppl 1 :S154-61
  • Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy: “Broken Heart Syndrome” Advance for NPs & PAs Vol. 17, Issue 11/12, Page S6
  • Current Practice of Thermoregulation During the Transport of Combat Wounded. (Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care. 69(1):S162-S167, July 2010.doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e3181e45b83)
  • Prehospital Medical Documentation in the Joint Theater Trauma Registry: A Retrospective Study (Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care. 71(1):S103-S108, July 2011. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e3182218fd7)
  • Index of Suspicion Case 1: Abdominal Pain, Fever, and Cough in a 3-year-old Boy (Pediatrics in Review Vol. 33 No. 4 April 1, 2012 pp. 179 -185 doi: 10.1542/pir.33-4-179)
  • 2007 Mushrooms in North America. Advance for Physician Assistants 16(5): 44-46
  • 2006. Intravenous Zofran for Headache. Journal of Emergency Medicine. 31(2): 228-229
  • 2005. Traumatic Corneal Freezing. Wilderness Medicine (Accepted for Publication)
  • August 2003. When an Eye Problem Suggests a Serious Underlying Condition. Clinical Advisor 72-81
  • 2002. Ocular Problems in Military Free Fall Parachutists. Military Medicine 167(10): 797-800
  • 2002. The 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne) Medical Civic Action Program Planning Guide, CD-ROM. Jackson Wyoming: Teton New Media
  • 2001. Operational Issues: MEDCAP (H/CA) Guide. In The Special Operations Forces Medical Handbook, ed. Yevich S, et al. 1:2-11, 1:18-20. Jackson Wyoming: Teton New Media
  • 2001. The Special Operations Forces Medical Handbook. Jackson Wyoming: Teton New Media
  • 2000. Malaria in a Borderless World. Federal Practitioner 17(10): 18-28
  • August 1998. Lower-Extremity Edema. Physician Assistants 17-19
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